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Sessions

1 Lessons from 50 years of ecology ▶
Full title: Transitions in ecology: what lessons have we learned in the last five decades?

Chairs: Nadja K. Simons, Sven Rubanschi

Contact: nadja.simons@tu-darmstadt.de

Since the very first GfÖ conference, almost a whole scientific lifetime has passed and some of those who attended the first GfÖ conferences as students or young researchers are now established scientists and have witnessed or even shaped how the field of ecology has changed over time. In this session, we want to take a look back at the questions ecologists asked, the experiments they conducted and the theories they tested in the last centuries. In particular, we want to learn how those ideas or approaches influenced today's ecological questions, both for the scientists who asked them and for the field of ecology as a whole. Importantly, we are not only looking for the success stories and influential ideas but also for the dead-ends and the lessons learned from those. For this, we invite contributions which fall broadly into one of two types: (1) presentations of their first (or early) research projects by established scientists with an emphasis on how this project shaped their career or scientific interest. (2) projects that revisit ecological questions or studies which have been conducted several decades ago. For both types of contributions, we don’t place restrictions on the study system or subfield of ecology. Instead, we ask presenters to place their results in the context of how ecological knowledge or theory has evolved since the time of the original study. In order to account for the fact that communicating ecological science in English has become the standard in Germany only relatively recently, contributions in either German or English are accepted and the session is structured accordingly.
2 Agrobiodiversity and ecosystem services ▶
Full title: Biodiversity and ecosystem services in agricultural systems: field to landscape-scale management for biodiversity-yield synergies

Chairs: Catrin Westphal, Annika Hass, María Felipe-Lucia, Maria Kernecker

Contact: cwestph@gwdg.de

Land use change and agricultural intensification are considered major drivers of biodiversity loss and can impair ecosystem functions and services in agricultural landscapes. At the same time, agricultural production relies on vital agroecosystems and species providing important ecosystem services, such as decomposition, biological pest control and pollination. Hence, we need innovative production systems that sustain agrobiodiversity and promote ecosystem services (e.g. ecological intensification). Moreover, managing agricultural landscapes for heterogeneity could likewise enhance both agricultural production and agrobiodiversity. This would, however, require collaboration between multiple farms and other land use systems. Despite the abundance of ecological studies showing the importance of coherent landscape-scale management for biodiversity, most policies and instruments (e.g. agri-environmental schemes) only target single fields and farms. In this session, we will focus on different approaches and measures that target the diversification of cropping systems and conservation of functionally relevant species and the ecosystem services they provide. This session will provide insights in the ecological but also socio-ecological outcomes of a wide range of local to landscape scale measures. For instance, benefits (and costs) of intercropping, mixed-cropping and reductions in agrochemical inputs as well as farm level (e.g. organic agriculture) and/or landscape level (e.g. hedgerows, flower-strips) measures. We also aim to identify cases in which individual or collaborative management is needed for biodiversity-yield synergies either in-field or across defined landscapes (e.g. via spill-overs between fields or land-use systems). At a broader level, our session aims to contribute to a less conflicted discourse between agricultural production and biodiversity conservation.
3 Biodiversity monitoring ▶
Full title: Improving biodiversity monitoring in terrestrial ecosystems

Chairs: David Ott, Hannah Reininghaus, Michael Meyer, Vera Zizka

Contact: Christoph.Scherber@uni-muenster.de

The aim of this session is to showcase and discuss current approaches to biodiversity monitoring in different countries and generate ideas for improvement. Ideally, a question- and hypothesis- driven approach to monitoring of biodiversity, ecosystem processes and environmental drivers is developed, combined with experimental manipulation of selected drivers.
4 Carbon allocation in plants and ecosystems ▶
Full title: Carbon allocation and storage in plants and ecosystems: new insights from experiments and field observations

Chairs: Henrik Hartmann, Günter Hoch, Michael Bahn

Contact: hhart@bgc-jena.mpg.de

Climate change potentially alters carbon (C) relations of plants and ecosystems. On the one hand, the ongoing increase of atmospheric CO2 changes plant and ecosystem stoichiometry with consequences for their functioning. On the other hand, increasing temperatures and drought might decrease net-C-uptake on the plant and ecosystem level, which, in extremis, can lead to declines in plant/ecosystem functioning and increasing mortality. Against this background, C allocation and reserve formation in plants and ecosystems have gained increasing attention over the last decade in plant ecology. However, although transport and allocation of photoassimilates to C sinks (e.g., respiration, structural growth, defense compounds, symbiotic interactions), the formation of C reserves and the re-allocation of stored C are essential processes in plants, our current understanding of the controlling mechanisms and the ecological significance of these processes, at the whole-plant level and beyond, is still surprisingly patchy. Moreover, the effect of environmental change, like drought or increasing temperatures, on the whole-plant C-balance and on C-allocation patterns, as well as the significance of C-reserves for stress resistance and resilience of plants are currently not well understood and a matter of ongoing debates. As a consequence of this lack of knowledge, we can neither properly predict the carbon balance of terrestrial ecosystems nor do we understand the factors that may drive plant mortality or survival under increasing environmental change. Within this session, we aim to bring together researchers working on different aspects of C allocation and storage in an ecophysiological context. In particular, we encourage contributions on quantitative analyses of phloem C-transport in plants, C-allocation at the whole-plant and ecosystem level and studies on the ecological significance of C-reserves for stress tolerance.
5 Nature and people ▶
Full title: Nature and people - Pathways between biodiversity and human health

Chairs: Rachel Oh Rui Ying, Aletta Bonn, Melissa R. Marselle

Contact: r.oh@uq.edu.au

Society is exposed to significant challenges relating to human health and wellbeing. As global populations choose and continue to reside in cities, they are subjected to intense urbanisation and loss of physical contact with nature. A recent rise in chronic and non-communicable diseases such as obesity and poor mental health has also been documented in urban residents. Conversely, climate change presents a huge threat to our biodiversity, optimal ecosystem functioning and its delivery of ecosystem benefits. With the increased frequency and prolonged duration of extreme climate events, our natural ecosystems may no longer be able to function optimally and sustainably. Given the importance of biodiversity’s contribution to human health and wellbeing, one questions whether and how experiencing nature under these urbanisation and climatic challenges provides relevant health and wellbeing benefits. As such, this session hopes to understand the contribution of biodiversity to human health and wellbeing, under the dual pressures of extreme urbanisation and climate change. It hopes to also gain insights into the casual pathways through which health and wellbeing benefits are delivered, and to apply the knowledge towards managing potential synergies between different academic disciplines to improve public health and the conservation of biodiversity.
6 Forest ecosystems and related sciences ▶
Full title: The future of forest ecosystems, open forests and other conservation strategies

Chairs: Franka Huth, Thomas Gottschalk

Contact: f.huth@freenet.de

Over the last decades forest ecosystems worldwide have been strongly disturbed and changed by various factors such as drought, fire, storm, insects and direct human impacts. Those changes accompanied by a reduced canopy closure have a huge impact on different ecosystem services. For several centuries within the former millennium, anthropogenic open forests were common in Central Europe, which were characterized by canopy openness dependent on human disturbances. Due to the loss of these forests as well as the loss of the megafauna and the implementation of a “subnatural forest praxis” a huge number of species has been disappeared from forests and currently several species are facing a rapid decline throughout Central Europe.

The aim of the session is to address a broad spectrum of scientific disciplines. Of particular interest are presentations detailing scientific work focusing on: (i) innovative methods to record and analyse the state of forest ecosystems, (ii) the identification of reasons for disturbances within forest ecosystems, (iii) their effects for ecosystem functions, services and processes, and (iv) the development of conservation strategies, management concepts and to preserve the vitality and functions of forests.
7 Automated biodiversity monitoring in ecology ▶
Full title: Sensing Biodiversity

Chairs: Lars Opgenoorth, Nina Farwig, Nico Friess

Contact: opgenoorth@uni-marburg.de

With this session we want to give a platform for presenting latest break-throughs in the automation of biodiversity monitoring by means of sensors, IoT networks, the buildup of dedicated data bases, to the automated analyses by machine learning. This can range from stationary sensors such as insect cameras, integrated tree sensor boxes, via mobile sensors mounted to animals, rovers, UAV's, to integrated biodiversity monitoring systems that cover entire interaction networks or ecosystems. We would like to hear both from recent developments and successful case studies as well as from initiatives targeting future collaborative networks.
8 Multiple ecosystem services in grasslands ▶
Full title: Incorporating multiple functions and services of grassland ecosystems to advance conservation strategies for modern societal demands

Chairs: Gert Rosenthal, Nils Stanik, Eckhard Jedicke

Contact: rosenthal@asl.uni-kassel.de

Grasslands of high nature value (HNV) fulfil multiple ecosystem functions and provide several ecosystem services. The variety of different functions and services developed out of a long history of diverse management systems, which generated at the same time the high biodiversity of these ecosystems. Even if many grassland ecosystems are subject of national and/or transnational protection schemes, they experience a continuous qualitative and quantitative decline throughout Europe. Major causes for this trend are that the economic interest and motivation for maintaining these ecosystems decreased in favour of high-productive grasslands. In the past small-scale agricultural context, production of biomass was the targeted ecosystem service by farmers for all grassland types, whereas today other ecosystem services like their regulating services (e.g., carbon sequestration) or cultural services (e.g., their aesthetic value) gain increasingly a broad societal recognition. Therefore, one can assume that the consideration of multiple ecosystem functions and services would support and enhance conservation efforts of HNV grasslands as an important ecological, economic, and aesthetic resource against mono-functional highly productive grasslands of low biodiversity. The session’s approach is to combine aspects from science and practice to advance conservation strategies for grasslands and linked taxonomic groups. We call for contributions that preferably consider both grassland’s multiple ecosystem functions and services, and their societal significance. The aim is to summarise scientific evidence on the multiple dimensions of ecosystem functions and services of HNV grasslands and develop this information for modern societal demands. Furthermore, we want to discuss these results in the light of current and future conservation goals. Here, main questions are: (i) How are different facets of biodiversity linked to ecosystem functioning and service provision of HNV grasslands?, (ii) What biotic and abiotic processes, species (groups), and traits are a prerequisite that contribute to grassland’s ecosystem functions and services?, (iii) What role takes the grassland management in achieving multifunctionality and supporting multiple ecosystem services? and (iv.) How can that support and advance more targeted conservation schemes and activities on HNV grasslands to generate diverse benefits to the society? This would be an important step forward to generate benefits and to transfer knowledge into management practice and current political discussions. The session corresponds to a Special Feature organised in the journal Basic and Applied Ecology (submission deadline currently planned for Sept. 2021), for which we want to encourage the contributors to submit a paper based on their session’s contribution. For questions about the Special Feature, please contact the session organisers.
9 Scales in ecology ▶
Full title: Scales and heterogeneity in ecology

Chairs: Katrin M. Meyer, Kerstin Wiegand, Britta Tietjen

Contact: kmeyer5@uni-goettingen.de

Scale-dependence is ubiquitous in ecology. It adds a new dimension of complexity to ecological research which calls for more scale-explicitness. However, scale-explicit studies and specifically general scaling methods are still scarce. This applies to empirical and modelling studies alike. In the case of homogeneous study sites, linear methods can often be used for scaling-up. However, our world is inherently heterogeneous, which makes connecting multiple scales highly challenging. The problems start with matching the study findings to the research question and do not end with transferring ecological patterns across spatial scales of a heterogeneous environment. The goal of this session is to contribute towards resolving this scale discrepancy in ecology.
10 Impacts of recent climate extremes on ecosystem fu ▶
Full title: Impacts of recent climate extremes on plant functioning in terrestrial ecosystems

Chairs: Nadine Ruehr, Henrik Hartmann, Miguel Mahecha, Jürgen Kreyling

Contact: nadine.ruehr@kit.edu

The climate of the 21st century shows a consistent trend of increasing temperatures and changing precipitation patterns. Since the turn of the century most years were warmer than what would be expected from the long-term average. In particular, the years 2018 and 2019 were marked by extreme, record-breaking summer temperatures in central Europe and 2018 was also one of the driest years of the past 140 years. In some parts of Germany, Austria and Switzerland agricultural yield was substantially reduced and many forest tree species showed symptoms of decline or died in response to heat and drought, either directly or due to reduced resistance against pests and diseases. Forest and agricultural damage have been reported so far in terms of loss of timber volume or harvest grain mass, but these assessments do not account for the ecological impact of increased mortality or reduced productivity in grasslands, marshes and forest ecosystems.rnrnThis session seeks to provide a platform for studies on impacts of extreme climate events on all aspects of ecosystem services in terrestrial ecosystems including forests, grasslands, mires and heathlands. Examples include assessments of spatial patterns or extent of decline or mortality, loss of productivity as well as impacts on greenhouse gas fluxes, or changes in species composition and the underlying processes. We welcome studies using a variety of different approaches including remote sensing, inventory assessments or field investigations. In addition, the session welcomes contributions from vegetation modeling allowing forecasting of ecosystem condition under anticipated future climate scenarios.rn
11 Scales and patterns of soil microbial diversity ▶
Full title: Scales and patterns of soil microbial diversity

Chairs: Christoph Tebbe, Michael Bonkowski

Contact: christoph.tebbe@thuenen.de

Since the advent of high-throughput DNA sequencing technology it has become feasible to capture the almost total diversity of microorganisms (bacteria, archaea, fungi and protists) in a soil sample. While DNA sequencing data are now accumulating, our capacity to predict the alpha diversity in soils and microbial community responses to treatments (beta-diversity) or environmental changes is still very limited. A major reason for this limitation is seen in the diversity of spatial scales which is applied to monitor microbial alpha- and beta-diversity. The objective of this session is therefore to present studies on soil microbial diversity which consider scales from soil aggregates to landscapes or even bio-geographical regions, and thereby stimulate the discussion about spatial scale selections and the best methods to analyze soil microbial communities appropriately.
12 Dynamic ecosystems ▶
Full title: Dynamic ecosystems in a changing world

Chairs: Sabine Fink, Kristin Ludewig, Tillmann Buttschardt, Harald Grote

Contact: sabine.fink@wsl.ch

The fate of dynamic ecosystems such as e.g. fire-prone habitat, storm water ponds, floodplains, coastal ecosystems remains unclear, since they are endangered due to human pressure and changing climate. Many global and national guidelines designate dynamic ecosystems as conservation priorities, but specific management methods are required to allow for human use (e.g. recreation) but still ensuring conservation of habitats as well as rare and adapted species in dynamic zones.

Common strategies for conservation management are frequently not applicable to dynamic ecosystems due to the stochastic nature of dynamic events. The lack of reference systems for natural processes in dynamic zones with or without human impact further creates scientific challenges - bonds can be obtained from the use and management of military areas, as dynamic living spaces have been preserved here for decades.

This session aims at contributing management strategies for dynamic ecosystems based on scientific studies, and practical experience such as the use and management of military sites. While we focus on the transition of results from scientific studies to practical conservation work and are interested in the role of stakeholders in nature conservation (e.g. military, farmers), we also welcome contributions investigating functioning of dynamic ecosystems per se.
13 Free Session ▶
Full title: Free Session

Chairs:

14 Macroecology - from traits to ecosystems ▶
Full title: Dimensions of diversity - macroecological avenues from traits to ecosystems

Chairs: Christian Hof, Holger Kreft

Contact: christian.hof@tum.de

While the GfÖ celebrates its 50th anniversary in 2020, the GfÖ specialist group for macroecology is still in its teenage years - founded in 2007. However, its growth and development over the last 14 years mirrors the vibrant dynamics of the field, from species richness patterns via macroevolutionary and biogeographical processes towards trait-based and ecosystem-focused approaches. Following this years’ theme of the GfÖ annual meeting, “Ecology – Science in Transition, Science for Transition”, our session aims to bring together contributions that represent the multitude of diversity dimensions and macroecological avenues that make up the field’s current state of the art. Thereby, we invite submissions from all sub-fields of macroecology. While either empirical, conceptual, or methodological studies are welcome, integrative presentations will be given priority, i.e. talks or posters that integrate different diversity dimensions, methods, taxa, data types, as well as spatial and temporal scales.
15 Soil biodiversity, soil functions and ESS ▶
Full title: The diversity of soil biota – processes, functions and ecosystem services in land use systems

Chairs: Martin Potthoff, Stefan Schrader

Contact: mpottho@gwdg.de

Soil biota provides services that are beneficial to the productivity and sustainability of land use systems. This session aims to discuss how land use systems and its management practices affect soil biodiversity and how soil biodiversity feeds back to soil functions and ecosystem services. Soil biodiversity is immense but still we hardly understand what allows and what limits such a diversity in a somehow uniform habitat. Knowledge is mounting that a sustainable intensification of land use needs to include the conservation of processes and functions run by soil biota that are essential for self-preservation and self-regulation of soils. Hence, the contributions to this session should address (1) the strong progress in developing methods for biodiversity identification in soil and the quantification of biota specific impacts and (2) transversal interactions with socio-economical sciences that lead to the development of tools to assess soil management as a socio-ecological issue.rnThis session will focus on the role of soil biology in delivering soil functions in systems formed by humans, e.g. agricultural (including grassland), forest or restored sites. The synergies and trade-offs that occur within the bundle of soil functions and management practices need to be identified to develop effective strategies for both sustainable land use and the protection of soil (biota) as an ecosystem.rn
16 Drylands in Transition ▶
Full title: Drylands in Transition

Chairs: Prof. Dr. Anja Linstädter, Liana Kindermann, PD Dr. Niels Blaum

Contact: linstaedter@uni-potsdam.de

In global drylands which comprise arid, semi-arid and dry subhumid ecosystems, plant growth is mainly limited by low and highly variable precipitation, mostly constraining human activities to livestock production. Thus, livelihood security in drylands relies heavily on forage provision and on other ecosystems services from vegetation. Drylands are also among the most sensitive areas to global environmental change. Increasing land-use pressure and climate change massively threaten ecosystem health and productivity, with negative consequences for local livelihoods and well-being. Although there is ample evidence that climate and land-use may have interactive effects on ecosystems, we still lack a mechanistic understanding how these two global change drivers – both separately and jointly – affect biodiversity, and, subsequently, ecosystem functions and services. This session calls for studies targeted at a better understanding of transitions in dryland ecosystems triggered by global environmental change. We invite observational studies, experimental studies and modelling approaches dealing with the effects of climate change and/or land-use change on dryland ecosystems. We particularly welcome studies on rapid transitions in drylands due to tipping point phenomena, as well as studies on changing management regimes such as transitions between livestock-based and wildlife-based strategies. This session is also the annual meeting of the Working Group "Dryland Research" within the Ecological Society.
17 Decline of insect abundance and diversity ▶
Full title: Special Session: GfÖ Research Funding on Decline of Insect Abundance

Chairs: Thomas Frank

Contact: thomas.frank@boku.ac.at

To point to the ongoing and tremendous decline of insects, the Ecological Society of Germany, Austria and Switzerland (GfÖ) announced a call for research proposals on “Decline of Insect Abundance” in 2019. Five of the submitted applications were granted. The granted proposals cover the following topics: 1. Trends of ground beetle numbers over 33 years in the Kaiserstuhl 2. The importance of dead wood amount for preserving insect diversity in naturally disturbed forests 3. Ecosystem effects of reduced insect abundance 4. Tits as monitors of insect abundance and diversity 5. Insect enhancement in lowland streams In this special session the granted proposals will be appropriately dignified. The session will consist of talks given by the awardees on the aforementioned topics. It gives the audience the opportunity to inform themselves about current projects dealing with insect decline.
18 Remote Sensing of Ecosystems ▶
Full title: Remote Sensing of Ecosystem Functions, Processes and Services

Chairs: André Große-Stoltenberg, Stefan Erasmi

Contact: andre.grosse-stoltenberg@umwelt.uni-giessen.de

Remote sensing data have proven their benefit in a wide range of applications in ecological and ecosystem research. Applications encompass various ecosystems from urban, marine, and freshwater to agriculture, forest and other vegetated land. Most applications built on the concept of key indicators (e.g. spatial, spectral and temporal metrics) that can be assessed from remote sensing analysis to describe the condition of and pressures on ecosystem functions, processes and services. Based on this concept, remote sensing is a valuable tool to indirectly monitor various aspects of ecosystem properties and their changes at different spatial and temporal scales. The session aims at highlighting the overall concept of remote sensing based ecosystem indicators and to give an insight into recent trends and developments of algorithms, sensors and applications in this field. We welcome contributions from methodological to applied research with the following (non-exclusive) topics: - Monitoring of indicators for condition and pressures of ecosystems - Predicting ecosystem services from remote sensing data - Advanced machine learning techniques for remote sensing data analysis - Developments in remote sensing sensors and platforms for mapping ecosystem properties
19 Urban Ecology ▶
Full title: Urban Ecology: Past, Present, Future

Chairs: Monika Egerer, Leonie Fischer, Sonja Knapp, Michael Strohbach

Contact: monika.egerer@tum.de

The Ecological Society of Germany, Austria and Switzerland turned 50 last year. With this anniversary and the motto “Science in Transition, Science for Transition” in focus, we are compelled to review the development of urban ecology as a “Science for Transition”. Already in the early 1970s, Editor of the Journal Urban Ecology Royce LaNier wrote: “Clearly there is a need to develop settlement patterns more responsive to the biospheric systems which support mankind and to the global needs of the species.” Cities today are faced with huge challenges including the loss of biodiversity, extreme weather events, human-wildlife conflict, and the loss of human-nature experiences. All of these factors are driving the decline of urban ecosystem services, upon which the livability of the world’s cities, and the well-being of its residents, depend. While urban ecology has in recent decades v astly improved our ecological understanding of urban environments, important challenges remain. In this session, we aim to bring together research from diverse topical areas in urban ecology that are contributing to our understanding of the ecology of past and present urban ecosystems and landscapes, and how to manage them for future challenges. The goals of this session include: 1) highlighting the key research projects and key people in urban ecology’s development; 2) discussing the contribution of urban ecology to the field of ecology; 3) reflecting upon the impact of urban ecology to solve real-world problems; and 4) envisioning solutions towards managing biodiverse and functioning urban environments in the next 50 years.

The session will be the opening meeting of the revived GfÖ-Specialist Group “Urban Ecology”, and will include an introduction to the Specialist Group and our future plans and ideas. We invite everyone interested to join and meet, and look forward to the ‘Austausch’ with all interested.
20 Methods and Models ▶
Full title: Computational Methods and Models in Ecology

Chairs: Florian Hartig, Lionel Hertzog, Gudrun Wallentin

Contact: florian.hartig@ur.de

In this session we welcome contributions advancing all aspects of ecological modelling from statistical approaches (i.e. new R packages, method comparisons) to process-based models (i.e. IBMs, population models). The aim of the session is to portray the large diversity of models and methods used in ecology, but also to foster exchanges between modellers and applied ecologists. Given the theme of the conference, we would also particularly welcome contributions reflecting on the evolution in ecological modelling practices over the last 50 years and on the new questions and research avenues that opened up due to advances in modelling techniques. This session will be organized in cooperation with the AK computational ecology.
21 Variability of traits ▶
Full title: Inter- and intraspecific trait variability in plants

Chairs: Solveig Franziska Bucher, Sergey Rosbakh, Niek Scheepens

Contact: solveig.franziska.bucher@uni-jena.de

Environmental factors such as temperature, precipitation and land use impose strong pressures on plant communities. Plants respond to changes in environmental conditions either via phenotypic plasticity or genetic adaptation or migration to follow conditions to which they are already adapted to, the last aspect leading to changes in plant community composition. All these plant responses affect trait variability, whether this be at inter- or intraspecific levels. Moreover, trait variability may vary at different spatial scales and this in turn may influence functional properties at the level of local plant communities up to whole ecosystems. In contrast to interspecific trait variability, intraspecific trait variability has been a neglected factor in community ecology for a long time and only recently there has been an interest in this source of variability to improve understanding of ecosystem functions and community processes. This resulted in the insight that considering both inter- and intraspecific trait variability simultaneously increase our understanding of ecological processes and community assembly, as both types of data can help explain niche differentiation and/or the coexistence of species. Given ongoing global change, it is important more than ever to study these distinct levels of variation to forecast plant species and community responses under further changes. This session offers a stage for scientists working on inter- or intraspecific trait variability in plants, its response to environmental changes, and its effects on higher-level processes. The presented research can address these topics through basic or applied questions in plant population ecology, community ecology and related disciplines.
22 Biotic interactions under climate and global chang ▶
Full title: Biotic interactions of trees and their associated microbial species under global and climate change

Chairs: Katharina Budde, Kathrin Blumenstein

Contact: k.budde@uni-göttingen.de

Biotic interactions of tree species with pathogens (fungi, bacteria, viruses and other microorganisms), endophytes (fungal or bacterial) or ectomycorrhizal communities play an important role in forest ecosystems. They affect the physiology and vitality of keystone forest tree species and thereby shape the population structure, species composition and dynamics of ecosystem processes. These interactions are important components in natural ecosystems, where the different species coevolved. In the course of climate change and globalization, the species distribution areas of tree associated organisms are shifting. Species that originally only occur locally may get spread worldwide by humans, through global trade and transport, and are sometimes able to find new host tree species. In the case of pathogens and due to the lack of coevolution in the new range, the host populations often show low resistance and get rapidly infected. Well-known examples in Europe are Dutch Elm Disease, and Chestnut Blight which have caused great ecological and economic damage. Most recent invasive fungal pathogens are responsible for causing e.g. Ash dieback or Sooty Bark Disease and are serious threats to European Ash and Maple species. Additionally, weakened host trees suffering from changes in abiotic conditions show higher susceptibility to common pathogens, e.g. to Heterobasidion spp. causing Root Rot in conifers. Under certain conditions in a weakened host also a switch from opportunistic endophytes to pathogens can be triggered. This is currently observed e.g. in Sphaeropsis sapinea (syn. Diplodia sapinea) causing Diplodia Tip Blight on conifers, especially pine species. However, other tree-fungus interactions are beneficial for both interacting partners, such as trees and their associated ectomycorrhizal, soil or phyllosphere endophytic communities, which can improve host resistance to drought. In this session, we would like to focus on changes in biotic interactions in forest ecosystems and particularly welcome presentations that aim at understanding factors that determine 1) the pathogenicity or virulence of pathogens, 2) resistance mechanisms in hosts, 3) the effect of changing environmental conditions in relation to putative adaptations of the host, as well as 4) beneficial interactions with other microorganisms (e.g. micro- and mycobiomes).
23 EU-Living labs in agricultural settings ▶
Full title: EU-Living labs in agricultural settings: enabling transformations in agriculture towards sustainable land use and food systems

Chairs: Fabian Nürnberger, Maria Busse, Anett Richter

Contact: fabian.nuernberger@thuenen.de

The GFÖ in 2020 is framed under the motto "Science in Transition, Science for Transition". Science in agricultural settings is challenged by the increasing pressure to find solutions that are ecologically sensible, socially acceptable and economically profitable. Living laboratories represent a promising approach to bring science into practise and to pathway transformations. The concept of living labs is a user-driven and integrative approach, which aims at co-designing innovative solutions and collectively experimenting innovations in real life settings. It builds on collaborations between different disciplines and practitioners as it is claimed in transdisciplinary research and citizen science. Furthermore, living labs aim at creating ‘research-implementation spaces’, establishing active networks and partnerships, and enabling social learning and co-production of knowledge. While transdisciplinary research projects caught attention, and the number of living labs is increasing, there are, until today, only few experiences in establishing and managing them. Challenges are differences between stakeholders’ and researchers’ timelines, objectives, and capacities to collaborate. Hence, the purpose of this session is to a) bring scientists from different fields with expertise in running or conceptualizing living laboratories or related transdisciplinary research projects on sustainable land use or food systems together and to b) develop in the future guidelines on how to best establish a network of living labs in agricultural settings and beyond. In our session, researchers that have already established living labs will share their best practise examples (case studies). As a group we will identify and discuss differences and similarities of presented transdisciplinary approaches. Further, we will develop a list of challenges and will co-develop practical solutions on how to address of establishing and managing transdisciplinary research projects to transform intricate systems together with stakeholders. The session will be summarised in form of a short report and findings will inform the projects FInAL and AE4EU.
24 Towards multi-functional forests ▶
Full title: Reconciling the many functions of forests - reserve, resource, and recreation

Chairs: Juliane Röder, Stefan Hotes

Contact: juliane.roeder@biologie.uni-marburg.de

Forests provide multiple ecosystem services from all service categories: provisioning, regulating, cultural and supporting, with wood playing a central role in several of them. Some ecosystem services show positive correlations and can be maximized simultaneously, while trade-offs occur between others. Forestry and the production of wood have shaped the appearance, composition and functions of forests for a long time, and some scenarios suggest that reliance on the provisioning ecosystem services of forests may increase in the future. However, maximizing wood production has had severe negative effects on the abundance and diversity e.g. of deadwood and deadwood specialists in the past, and biodiversity strategies require the reversal of these trends. Increasing demand for regulating ecosystem services makes the debate on suitable management strategies for forests more complicated: forests play a role in essential hydrological and biochemical processes which contribute to regulating ecosystem services, but maximizing these can also create conflicts with conservation goals. Adding the aspect of cultural ecosystem services leads to an even more complex situation: forests are important for recreation and tourism, and considerable cultural and economic value has been associated with these types of forest ecosystem services. However, because the economic benefits derived from these ecosystem services do not normally reach forest managers, they are not necessarily considered in decisions on how to use forests. The aim of this symposium is to address the challenges involved in the search for optimal solutions to reconcile demand for different ecosystem services of forests. We invite in particular contributions with a focus on the role of wood in relation to different ecosystem services and to biodiversity. Examples include e.g. (i) the evaluation of ecological, economic and/or cultural values of forests and deadwood from local to national scales, (ii) methods to monitor progress on the implementation of National Biodiversity Strategies and Action Plans (NBSAPs), (iii) examples for compensation mechanisms addressing the trade-off between ecological and economic optimization.
25 Wildflower strip efficiency ▶
Full title: Sown wildflower areas as an integral part of multifunctional agricultural landscapes

Chairs: Tim Diekötter, Frank Jauker

Contact: tdiekoetter@ecology.uni-kiel.de

Sown wildflower areas have become a popular agri-environmental scheme to conserve biodiversity and promote associated ecosystem services in agricultural landscapes. Competition for space in intensively managed agricultural regions, however, is intense and financial resources for subsidies are limited. To facilitate implementation of wildflower areas, knowledge on optimal design and installation practices is required. This includes insights into how flowering areas benefit agro-biodiversity at local (e.g. moderated by size or floral composition) and landscape scales (e.g. moderated by connectivity with additional flowering areas or semi-natural landscape elements in their surroundings). A great potential of flowering areas lies in their optimization towards multiple target organisms and the promotion of multiple ecosystem services such as pollination, biological control and water purification. Here, we are interested in studies that advance our understanding of the efficient functioning of sown wildflower areas towards a dynamic, locally and regionally adapted tool integral to creating the multifunctional agroecosystems of the future.
0 Workshop: Citizen Science ▶
Full title: Workshop: Citizen Science Dialog-Workshop – Innovationspotenzial für Biodiversitätsforschung: Citizen Science Strategie 2030 für Deutschland

Chairs: Aletta Bonn, Thora Herrmann, Silke Voigt-Heucke

Contact: aletta.bonn@idiv.de

Der Workshop startet mit zwei kurzen Impulsvorträgen zur Citizen Science Strategie 2030 und Citizen Science Innovation in Biodiversitätsforschung und -Politik. Danach gibt es Gelegenheit zu Blitzlichtern von Citizen Science Projekten - bitte gerne anmelden. Anschließend werden in interaktiven Breakout-Sessions die Innovationspotenziale von Citizen Science für Biodiversitätsforschung und die Handlungsfelder der Citizen Science Strategie für Deutschland 2030 diskutiert und daraus Handlungsbedarf für Citizen Science und Biodiversitätsforschung aus Sicht der GfÖ-Community identifiziert.
Das Grünbuch Citizen Science Strategie 2020 für Deutschland stellte in 2016 das Produkt eines zweijährigen Prozesses in Deutschland vor, bei dem Stakeholder aus Wissenschaft, Verbänden, Gesellschaft und Politik über Status Quo und Bedarfe zu Citizen Science intensiv diskutiert haben. Seit April 2020 evaluieren wir nun, inwieweit die Entwicklung von Citizen Science von einer Absichtserklärung hin zur Implementation stattgefunden hat, und haben einen Entwurf für das Weißbuch Citizen Science Strategie 2030 für Deutschland entwickelt, der im Sommer 2021 konsultiert wird. In diesem Workshop möchten wir für die Biodiversitäts Community diskutieren: Was ist bisher geschehen, wo haben sich Möglichkeiten und Herausforderungen aufgetan, wo gibt es noch Handlungsbedarf? Dieser GfÖ Workshop bietet die Möglichkeit für Input der wissenschaftlichen Community im Bereich Biodiversität, Naturschutz und Monitoring. Die Ergebnisse und die Expertise dieses Workshops werden in den übergeordneten Prozess der Entwicklung des Weißbuchs Citizen Science 2030 für Deutschland einfließen, sowie die Aufstellung der GFÖ im Bereich Citizen Science.

Bei Interesse können wir überlegen, ob und wie ein GFÖ Citizen Science Arbeitskreis entwickelt werden und arbeiten könnte.